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Odysseus
Ὀδυσσεύς

Odysseus. 4205: Théophile Bra 1797-1863: Ulysse dans l'île de Calypso, 1822. Palais des Beaux-arts, Lille.

"Unhappy Odysseus, he does not know the sufferings that await him; or how these ills I and my Phrygians endure shall one day seem to him precious as gold. For beyond the ten long years spent at Troy he shall drag out other ten and then come to his country all alone…" (Cassandra. Euripides, Daughters of Troy 431).

"Odysseus wrought no wrong in deed or word to any man in the land, as the wont is of divine kings—one man they hate and another they love. Yet he never wrought iniquity at all to any man." (Penelope to the herald Medon 5. Homer, Odyssey 4.690).

"… For nothing is greater or better than this, when man and wife dwell in a home in one accord, a great grief to their foes and a joy to their friends; but they know it best themselves." (Odysseus to Nausicaa. Homer, Odyssey 6.180).

"I am become a name;
For always roaming with a hungry heart
Much have I seen and known: cities of men
And manners, climates, councils, governments,
Myself not least, but honoured of them all;
And drunk delight of battle with my peers,
Far on the ringing plains of windy Troy.
I am part of all that I have met;
Yet all experience is an arch wherethro'
Gleams that untraveled world, whose margin fades
For ever and for ever when I move."
(Tennyson 1809-1892. Ulysses).


Odysseus was king of Ithaca and leader of the Cephallenians against Troy. He is remembered for having invented the construction of the WOODEN HORSE, the stratagem that made it possible to take Troy. Like other ACHAEAN LEADERS, Odysseus was confronted, after the sack of Troy, with both a hard return and sedition at home. On his return to Ithaca he killed the many SUITORS OF PENELOPE, who had been wasting his property during the last years of his long absence, and for this massacre he was condemned to exile by King Neoptolemus of Epirus.

The Oath of Tyndareus

When Helen was to be married, many SUITORS came from the whole of Hellas, wishing to win her hand, and among them came Odysseus. King Tyndareus of Sparta, Helen's father or stepfather, feared then that the preference of one suitor might provoke the enmity of the others, and so Odysseus promised him that, if Tyndareus would help him to win the hand of Penelope, he would suggest a way by which there would be no dispute among the SUITORS. When Tyndareus agreed, promising to help him, Odysseus told him to exact an oath from all the SUITORS OF HELEN that they would defend the favored bridegroom against any wrong that might be done him in respect of his marriage. So when Menelaus won the hand of Helen, all accepted it in virtue of the oath, and thus Odysseus married Penelope, who was the prize of such a wise advice. But later the seducer Paris abducted Helen; and so the kings of Hellas, being bound by The Oath of Tyndareus, were forced, after being summoned by Menelaus and his brother Agamemnon, to join the alliance that sailed to Troy with the purpose of obtaining, either peacefully or by force, the restoration of Helen and the property. This is how Odysseus, thanks to the the oath, won Penelope. But when war threatened, he was forced, on account of the same oath, to join the coalition that gathered in the harbor of Aulis in Boeotia under the command of Agamemnon. And since Odysseus was one of those who prefer quiet life at home to any glory that war might give, he was reluctant to join the army.

Palamedes forces Odysseus, and Odysseus Achilles

This reluctance was defeated by Palamedes, the envoy of Agamemnon, who appeared in Ithaca to remind Odysseus of the oath. On the occasion Odysseus feigned madness to avoid joining the coalition, but Palamedes, by threatening to kill Odysseus' son Telemachus with his sword, forced him to confess that his madness was pretended, and he consented to go to war. Having thus been forced to join the army, Odysseus in turn forced Achilles, who disguised as a girl was hiding in Scyros (the island in the Aegean Sea northeast of Euboea), to do the same. For that purpose, he used a trumpet, reasoning that a girl would not react to its sound as a man does.

Death of Palamedes

Odysseus neither forgot nor forgave the envoy's trick, and having plotted against Palamedes when they were at Troy, he had him stoned to death by the army. This is what he did: when a Trojan was made prisoner, Odysseus compelled him to write a letter of treasonable purport which seemed to be sent by King Priam 1 to Palamedes. Then he buried gold in the quarters of Palamedes, and dropped the letter in the camp. And when, as expected, the letter was read and the gold was found, Agamemnon delivered up Palamedes to be stoned as a traitor. Others have said, however, that Palamedes was drowned while fishing, by Odysseus and Diomedes 2.

Embassies

Odysseus was one of the ambassadors who came to Troy to demand the peaceful restoration of Helen and the property. This embassy failed when the Trojans, who had summoned an assembly, not only refused to give anyone nor anything back, but also threatened to kill the envoys, who were saved by the intervention of Antenor 1. During the war, Odysseus was among those who came to beg Achilles to return to the fight, promising him, on behalf of Agamemnon, the seven tripods, the seven women, the seven cities, and all the other gifts, including Achilles' sweetheart Briseis, that the king offered Achilles, should he left his wrath aside. This embassy, like the first, also failed.

Fetches the Bow and Arrows of Heracles 1

When after the death of Achilles and Hector 1, Troy still could not be taken, new prophecies were uttered concerning the fall of the city, and the seer Calchas declared to the Achaeans that they would not be successful unless they had the bow and arrows of Heracles 1 fighting on their side. To have this oracle fulfilled, Odysseus and Diomedes 2 (but some say Neoptolemus) sailed to Lemnos where Philoctetes had been abandoned, and having by craft or cunning got possession of the bow, they persuaded him to sail back with them to Troy.

Helenus 1 forced to "sing"

Diomedes 2 and Odysseus discover Achilles disguised as Pyrrha 3 in Scyros. 7109: Achilles between Diomedes and Odysseus at Scyros. Pompeii. National Archaeological Museum, Naples.

But since the city was still impregnable, Calchas issued a new prophecy, saying that the Trojan seer Helenus 1 was the only one who knew the oracles that protected the city. Odysseus then, helped by certain circumstances, captured him, and having brought him to the camp, the Achaeans made him disclose the oracles. It was Odysseus again, who following them, brought Neoptolemus to Troy, and stole the Palladium from the city.

Dispute with Ajax 1

After the death of Achilles, Ajax 1 and Odysseus competed for his arms, that were offered as a prize to the bravest. Odysseus was then preferred by the judges, and Ajax 1, some say, planned an attack on the army to calm his bitterness. However, Athena drove him mad, and he slaughtered the cattle with the herdsmen, taking them for the Achaeans. When he later came to his senses, he slew himself.

The WOODEN HORSE

It was not before Odysseus conceived the stratagem of the WOODEN HORSE that Troy could be taken. For thanks to it, the warriors that hid inside the treacherous device (among which Odysseus himself), could enter the city and open the gates to the rest of the army.

The Ciconians

After the war Odysseus wandered for ten years. He went first to the land of the Ciconians in Thrace where he pillaged the city of Ismarus, not sparing anyone except a priest of Apollo called Maron 1, son of Evanthes 1, who reigned in Marioneia.

The Lotus-eaters

Having lef the country of the Ciconians, he landed in that of the Lotus-eaters. The Lotus was a sweet fruit which caused him who tasted it to forget everything. And as some of the crew ate from the fruit, Odysseus had to force them back to the ships; for those who tasted the Lotus preferred to stay with the lotus-eaters, forgetting all about returning home.

The Cyclops Polyphemus 2

Later Odysseus and his men arrived to the land of the Cyclopes, who resemble the CYCLOPES but are not quite the same. There, he and part of his crew were trapped by the Cyclops Polyphemus 2, who devoured some of his comrades, and promised Odysseus to eat him last as a reward for the wine he had received from him. However, when the Cyclops, being drunk, was asleep, Odysseus and his men blinded his single eye. Polyphemus 2 in despair cried to the other Cyclopes for help. But when they came and asked who was hurting him, he told them that Nobody had hurt him (for Odysseus had told him that he was called so), and the Cyclopes retired. This is how Odysseus and his comrades could escape the cave of Polyphemus 2. But while sailing away Odysseus teased the Cyclops and was cursed by him, who called upon his father Poseidon. And to avenge his son, the god decided to make Odysseus' journey even harder.

Happy Aeolus 2

Thence Odysseus sailed to the Aeolian Islands, which were ruled by happy Aeolus 2, whom Zeus appointed keeper of the winds. This Aeolus 2 is a favorite of the gods, and that is the reason why his daily life consists just of merry banquets in the company of his wife and children. He generously entertained Odysseus, and for his voyage gave him a bag in which he had bound fast the winds.

Careless captain and greedy crew

However, when they were near Ithaca and could already see the island, Odysseus fell asleep, and his comrades, thinking he carried gold from Troy in the bag that Aeolus 2 had given him, loosed it and unwittingly let the winds go free. In this way the careless captain and his greedy crew were driven back to the Aeolian Islands where Odysseus, in the course of an embarrassing interview with Aeolus 2, was denied the fair wind he asked, being immediately expelled from the island.

The Laestrygonians

After the Aeolian Islands, Odysseus and his men came to the land of the Laestrygonians, a cannibal people ruled by Antiphates 2. In this strange land, nightfall and morning are so close to each other that shepherds bringing in their flocks at night are met by other shepherds driving out their flocks at dawn. Ignoring the gastronomic customs of this nation, all captains, except Odysseus, put their ships in a cove that was surrounded on all sides by a ring of cliffs, with two headlands facing each other at the mouth, leaving just a narrow channel in between. Having caught sight of a wisp of smoke rising up from the countryside, they sent three messengers, only to discover that the inhabitants intended to eat them for supper. When Odysseus and their men realised their plight, they tried to escape. But the Laestrygonians, who now appeared in great numbers, began pelting the fleet with huge rocks, and harpooning the men. Only Odysseus' ship and his crew could escape for having brought the ship to rest outside the cove. This is how the largest part of Odysseus' army and fleet was destroyed.

Circe

Afterwards, Odysseus and his crew came to the island of Aeaea where the witch Circe lived. Some time ago she had purified the ARGONAUTS for the murder of Apsyrtus. But now, when Odysseus arrived, Circe touched his comrades with a wand and turned them into wolves, swine, asses, and lions, their minds remaining unchanged. Others say that she gave Odysseus' comrades a potion, and when they had drunk it off, she touched them with her wand, and having turned them into swine, put them in the sties. In any case Odysseus threatened her with his sword, forcing the witch to restore his comrades. And having assumed a more amicable disposition, Circe helped him to find the way down to Hades, where he should get instructions from the seer Tiresias concerning his return to Ithaca and his future fate.

ODYSSEUS IN HADES

Having descended to Hades, Odysseus made a blood offering in order to attract the souls of the dead, not letting anyone approach the blood of the animals he had sacrificed before he had talked with Tiresias. Any soul having access to the blood could hold a rational speech with Odysseus, but those who were denied the blood would leave him alone and disappear. Tiresias, whose mind was unchanged since Persephone had granted him to keep his wits in Hades, warned Odysseus of the wrath of Poseidon, and advised Odysseus not to harm the cattle of Helius in Thrinacia (Sicily). He also informed him about what was taking place in Ithaca, where many SUITORS, wishing to marry his wife, lived at his expenses. Finally Tiresias prophesied that Odysseus' death would come in his Old Age, far from the sea and in a gentle way (see also ODYSSEUS IN HADES, and "The Cattle of Helius" at Charybdis).

7608: Odysseus and the Sirens. Intarsia 19th century. Museo Correale di Terranova, Sorrento.

The SIRENS

After having touched again at Circe's island of Aeaea, Odysseus sailed past the SIRENS, as Circe had predicted. Since he wished to hear their lovely song and yet not be trapped by it, he stopped the ears of his comrades with wax, and ordered that he should himself be bound to the mast. And being persuaded by the SIRENS to linger, he begged to be released, but they bound him tighter, until they had sailed past. Some think that this was the end of the SIRENS; for it had been predicted that they would die when a ship passed them unharmed.

Scylla 1, The Cattle of Helius, and Charybdis

In sailing past the cliff of Scylla 1, the monster snatched some of his comrades, and gobbled them up, but having nevertheless escaped her, they arrived to the island Thrinacia, where the crew slaughtered The Cattle of Helius (full story at Charybdis). For having done this, Zeus destroyed Odysseus' ship and all his comrades drowned. When the ship broke up, Odysseus clung to the mast and drifted to Charybdis. But when Charybdis sucked down the mast, he was saved by clinging to a fig-tree that grew over the whirlpool. There he waited until he saw the mast drifting again, and he cast himself on it, and was carried away.

Calypso 3

He then came to the island where Calypso 3 lived. This goddess kept Odysseus imprisoned in her cave for seven years and offered him immortality, which he refused, wishing above all to come back home to Ithaca and Penelope.

Meets Nausicaa in Phaeacian beach

It was Hermes, who, sent by Zeus, ordered Calypso 3 to let Odysseus go. He then made a raft and sailed away until he was washed up naked on the shore of the Phaeacians, where Nausicaa, the daughter of King Alcinous, was washing the clothes. When Odysseus begged her protection, she brought him to the king, who entertained him, and sent him away with a convoy to Ithaca, after having heard Odysseus' account of the stories we are now reading.

While Penelope weaves, her SUITORS feast

On arriving to Ithaca, twenty years after his departure, Odysseus found his property and land wasted. For, believing that he was dead, many SUITORS wished to marry his wife, and living in his palace, consumed his herds at their feasts during his absence. Waiting for Odysseus, Penelope was compelled to promise to her suitors that she would wed when the shroud of Laertes was finished. But she wove it for three long years, without ever finishing it, until she was detected weaving it by day and undoing it by night.

Death of the SUITORS

Odysseus and Penelope. Painting by Francesco Primaticcio (1504-1570). Photo: Toledo Museum of Art, Ohio.

The SUITORS OF PENELOPE were about one hundred, but Odysseus, helped by his son and two servants, managed to kill them all. Many of them he killed with the bow that Iphitus 1 once had given him. He had inherited it from his father Eurytus 4 of Oechalia, who in turn had received it from Apollo. This bow Odysseus, when going to war, would never take with him, but let it lay at home. When the disguised Odysseus had already entered the palace, Penelope delivered to her SUITORS the bow, declaring that she would marry whichever among them proved the best at stringing the bow and shooting an arrow. And when none of them could bend it, Odysseus took it and shot down the SUITORS, being helped by his son Telemachus, Eumaeus 1 (his servant and swineherd) and Philoetius, a master-herdman in Ithaca.

Found to have gone too far

Because of this massacre, Odysseus was accused by the kinfolk of the slain SUITORS, and then he submitted the case to the judgment of King Neoptolemus of Epirus, who condemned him to exile. Some believe that Neoptolemus judged in this way because he wanted to get possession of the island of Cephallenia. After killing the SUITORS OF PENELOPE, Odysseus went to Thesprotia in Epirus, where he offered a sacrifice, following the instructions he received in the Underworld from Tiresias. It is also told that Callidice 2, queen of the Thesprotians, urged him to stay as king, and that he, having married her, had by her a son Polypoetes 4, whom he gave the kingdom on his return to Ithaca. Others say that Odysseus went to Aetolia, where he married the daughter of Thoas 2 (king of Pleuron and Calydon, and former leader of the Aetolians against Troy), having by her a son Leontophonus.

Death at last

When Telegonus 3 learned from his mother Circe that he was son of Odysseus, he sailed in search of his father. Having come to Ithaca, he drove away some of the cattle, and when Odysseus defended them, Telegonus 3 wounded him with the spear he had in his hands, which was barbed with the spine of a stingray, and Odysseus died of the wound. Telegonus 3 then recognised him, and bitterly lamented what he had done. But others say that Odysseus died of Old Age, as Tiresias predicted.


Family 

Parentage

Mates

Offspring

Notes

Laertes & Anticlia 1

Sisyphus & Anticlia 1


Laertes is son of Arcisius. He is found among the ARGONAUTS and the CALYDONIAN HUNTERS. He had also a daughter Ctimene. Arcisius was in turn son of Cephalus 1 and Procris 2, though some call him son of Zeus.

Anticlia 1's father Autolycus 1, who lived near Mount Parnassus in Phocis (the region bordering the Gulf of Corinth west of Boeotia), is said to have been the one who found the name Odysseus for his grandchild. Autolycus 1 was famous for his high developed talent as a thief. It is said that Hermes gave him the gift of being such a skilful thief that he was able to change whatever he stole into some other form or colour, from white to black, or from black to white, from a hornless animal to a horned one, or from a horned one to a hornless. In this way he kept his cattle always increasing in number and the cattle of Sisyphus, from whom he stole, always decreasing. Sisyphus, who was not less talented himself, put a mark on the hooves of his cattle, and in that way he could identify them. Some say that while Sisyphus was fetching back his cattle, he seduced Autolycus 1's daughter Anticlia 1, who became mother of Odysseus, and they call Sisyphus his father from whom they suppose Odysseus got his "many wiles." But others think that Autolycus 1 had wiles enough to account for those of his grandchild.

 


Penelope

Telemachus

Poliporthes

Acusilaus

Mentor 4 was an old friend of Odysseus, to whom the latter entrusted his household when he sailed against Troy. Mentor 4, or rather Athena in his likeness, appeared several times to help Telemachus to take action. Odysseus' fate was, at that time, unknown to Telemachus, and Odysseus' home was threatened by the SUITORS OF PENELOPE. During this period Telemachus, looking for news about his father's fate, visited Menelaus and Nestor. Telemachus took part in the killing of the SUITORS OF PENELOPE.
Poliporthes was born after Odysseus returned from Troy.


Circe

 

 

Telegonus 3

Agrius 4

Latinus 1

Romanus

Romus

Anteias

Ardeias

(Compare with next)

These children are also said to be the offspring of Telemachus & Circe.

For Telegonus 3 see main text above. He is also said to be the son of Odysseus & Calypso 3 (see below).

There are many other versions about the parentage of Latinus 1.

Romanus is said to have given his name to the city of Rome, but others say otherwise.

Romus is said to have given his name to the city of Rome, but the same is said of Roma 1, Roma 2, Roma 3, Romanus and Romis.


Calypso 3

(Compare with previous)

Latinus 1

Nausithous 2

Nausinous

Telegonus 3

 

Callidice 2

Polypoetes 4

See main text above.

Thoas 2's Daughter

Leontophonus

 

Polymele 3

---

Polymele 3 is daughter of Aeolus 2, the ruler of the winds.

Evippe 5

Euryalus 9

Euryalus 9 is son of Evippe 5, a woman of Epirus. When he was a grown-up man, his mother sent him to Ithaca to meet his father, but Penelope, having learned of her husband's affair with Evippe 5, persuaded Odysseus, before he knew the facts, to kill Euryalus 9. So Odysseus killed him not knowing he was his son, and thinking he was engaged in a plot against him.


Genealogical Charts

Names in this chart: Acusilaus, Aeolus 1, Aethlius, Aetolus 2, Agenor 6, Agrius 4, Amyclas 1, Anteias, Anticlia 1, Arcisius, Ardeias, Atlas, Autolycus 1, Callidice 2, Calypso 3, Cephalus 1, Circe, Creusa 1, Ctimene, Cynortes, Deion, Deucalion 1, Diomede 1, Endymion, Erechtheus, Erichthonius 2, Euryalus 9, Evippe 5, Gorge 2, Helius, Hellen 1, Hermes, Icarius 1, Lacedaemon, Laertes, Latinus 1, Leontophonus, Nausinous, Nausithous 2, Neleus, Nestor, Odysseus, Oebalus 1, Oeneus 2, Pandion 2, Penelope, Persepolis, Pleione, Pleuron, Poliporthes, Polycaste 2, Polypoetes 4, Porthaon, Procris 2, Romanus, Romus, Salmoneus, Taygete, Telegonus 3, Telemachus, Thoas 2, Thoas 2's Daughter, Tyrimmas, Tyro, Xuthus 1, Zeus.


Odysseus' Palace
According to Johann Heinrich Voss (1820), translator of Homer's works
Explanation of the letters in the plan and quotes from Homer's Odyssey, referring to the building


Drawing by J. H. Voß (1820)

a: The wall.
"There is building upon building, and the court is built with wall and coping, and the double gates are well-fenced ..." [17.267]
"Then Odysseus seized him by the foot, and dragged him forth through the doorway until he came to the court and the gates of the portico. And he set him down and leaned him against the wall of the court ..." [18.102]
"But when they had set in order all the hall, they led the women forth from the well-built hall to a place between the dome and the goodly fence of the court, [460] and shut them up in a narrow space, whence it was in no wise possible to escape." [22.459]
b: The entrance, a place to sit.
"But the wooers were dismayed and downcast in spirit, and forth they went from the hall past the great wall of the court, and there before the gates they sat down." [16.343]
Like at Nestor's palace: "... and went forth and sat down on the polished stones which were before his lofty doors..." [3.406]
A: Courtyard and fence
"... but now he lay neglected, his master gone, in the deep dung of mules and cattle, which lay in heaps before the doors, till the slaves of Odysseus should take it away to dung his wide lands." [17.297]
"... lead the women forth from the well-built hall to a place between the dome and the goodly fence of the court, and there strike them down with your long swords ..." [22.442]
c: The gates
"But in silence Philoetius hastened forth from the house, and barred the gates of the well-fenced court." [21.390]
d: The yard's dog
"And a hound that lay there raised his head and pricked up his ears, Argos, the hound of Odysseus ..." [17.291]
e: Place for mules, etc.
"... but now he lay neglected, his master gone, in the deep dung of mules and cattle ..." [17.298]
f: Two halls
"The goats he tethered beneath the echoing portico ..." [20.176]
"The beasts he tethered carefully beneath the echoing portico ..." [20.189]
"These he let be to feed in the fair courts ..." [20.164]
Like at Menelaus' palace: "They loosed the sweating horses from beneath the yoke and tied them at the stalls of the horses, and flung before them spelt, and mixed therewith white barley. Then they tilted the chariot against the bright entrance walls, and led the men into the divine palace." [6.42]
g: The dome
"But when you have set all the house in order, lead the women forth from the well-built hall to a place between the dome and the goodly fence of the court, and there strike them down with your long swords, until you take away the life from them all." [22.440]
"So he spoke, and tied the cable of a dark-prowed ship to a great pillar and flung it round the dome, stretching it on high that none might reach the ground with her feet." [22.466]
h: Double entrance to the court
"Then Odysseus seized him by the foot, and dragged him forth through the doorway until he came to the court and the gates of the portico. And he set him down and leaned him against the wall of the court ..." [18.102]
B: The levelled middle court.
"Then she went darting down from the heights of Olympus, and took her stand in the land of Ithaca at the outer gate of Odysseus, on the threshold of the court." [1.104]
"But the wooers in front of the palace of Odysseus were making merry, throwing the discus and the javelin in a levelled place ..." [4.627]
"And the wooers meanwhile in front of the palace of Odysseus were making merry, throwing the discus and the javelin in a levelled place, as their wont was, in insolence of heart." [17.168]
As in Alcinous' palace: "... and therein are two springs, one of which sends its water throughout all the garden, while the other, over against it, flows beneath the threshold of the court toward the high house; from this the townsfolk drew their water." [7.131].
i: Hall
"First they bore forth the bodies of the slain and set them down beneath the portico of the well-fenced court ..." [22.449]
"And now the bodies are all gathered together at the gates of the court ..." [23.49]
Like in Nestor's palace: "But the maids went forth from the hall with torches in their hands and strewed the couch, and a herald led forth the guests. So they slept there in the fore-hall of the palace ..." [4.302].
k: Zeus of the Court (herkeios)
"... and he was divided in mind whether he should slip out from the hall and sit down by the well-built altar of great Zeus, the God of the court ..." [22.334]
l: Telemachus' room
"But Telemachus, where his chamber was built in the beautiful court, high, in a place of wide outlook, thither went to his bed..." [1.426]
m: Rooms for living and daily activity.
Like in Menelaus' palace: "They drove up sheep, and brought strengthening wine, and their wives with beautiful veils sent them bread. Thus they were busied about the feast in the halls." [4.621]
n: Vestibule
"Give way, old man, from the doorway ..." "This threshold will hold us both ..." "Thus on the polished threshold before the lofty doors they stirred one another's rage ..." "Then Odysseus seized him by the foot, and dragged him forth through the doorway until he came to the court and the gates of the portico. And he set him down and leaned him against the wall of the court ..." [18.10-100]
o: Bathroom
"Meanwhile the housewife Eurynome bathed the great-hearted Odysseus ..." [23.153]
p: An activity room, besides which a small passage.
"... for terribly near is the fair door of the court, and the mouth of the passage is hard." [22.137]
C: The Hall. Torches:
"But the wooers turned to dance and gladsome song, and made them merry, and waited for evening to come on. And as they made merry dark evening came upon them. Presently they set up three braziers in the hall to give them light, and round about them placed dry faggots, long since seasoned and hard, and newly split with the axe; and in the spaces between they set torches; and in turn the handmaids of Odysseus, of the steadfast heart, kindled the flame." [18.307]
q: Place where the wine is prepared for drinking.
"Rise up in order, all you of our company, from left to right, beginning from the place where the cupbearer pours the wine." [21.142]
"He stood with the clear-toned lyre in his hands near the postern door, and he was divided in mind whether he should slip out from the hall [335] and sit down by the well-built altar of great Zeus, the God of the court ..." [22.333]
"So he laid the hollow lyre on the ground between the mixing-bowl and the silver-studded chair, and himself rushed forward and clasped Odysseus by the knees ..." [22.341]
r: Pillars.
"... certainly the walls of the house and the fair beams and cross-beams of fir and the pillars that reach on high, glow in my eyes as with the light of blazing fire." [19.38]
"And when they were within the lofty house, he bore the spear and set it against a tall pillar in a polished spear-rack, where were set many spears besides ..." [1.127]
"But when he came to the stately house he set his spear in place, leaning it against a tall pillar, and himself went in and crossed the threshold of stone." [17.29]
s: Simple doors
"... and she locked the doors of the stately hall." [19.31]
D: Passage to avoid the rooms of the guests.
"Now there was in the well-built wall a certain postern door, and along the topmost level of the threshold of the well-built hall was a way into a passage, and well-fitting folding doors closed it." [22.128]
t: Door from vestibule to the side
"One man could bar the way for all, so he were valiant. But come, let me bring you from the store-room arms to don, for it is within, methinks, and nowhere else that Odysseus and his glorious son have laid the arms." [22.137]
u: Stairs to Odysseus' rooms
"... shut up the women in their rooms, while I lay away in the store-room the weapons of my father ..." [19.17]
"So saying, Melanthius, the goatherd, mounted up by the steps of the hall to the store-rooms of Odysseus." [22.143]
v: Door leading to the women's rooms
"... and shaking the door said to Eurycleia: 'Up and hither, aged wife, that hast charge of all our woman servants in the halls'." [22.394]
w: Stairs leading to the Queen's upper chambers, where she also weaves.
"... and she went down the high stairway from her chamber ..." [1.329]
"... at evening I will fetch them, when my mother goes to her upper chamber ..." [2.357]
"and went up to her upper chamber with her handmaids ..." [4.760]
"... she does not often appear before the wooers in the house, but apart from them weaves at her loom in an upper chamber." [15.516]
E: The Queen's working room
"... for the herald Medon told her, who heard their counsel as he stood without the court and they within were weaving their plot. So he went through the hall to bear the tidings to Penelope ..." "... and she had no more the heart to sit upon one of the many seats that were in the room, but down upon the threshold of her fair-wrought chamber she sank, moaning piteously ..." "... But now bathe thyself, and take clean raiment for thy body, and then go up to thy upper chamber ..." [4.679-768]
"Then forth from her chamber came wise Penelope ..." [17.36]
"So she spoke among her handmaids, sitting in her chamber ..." [17.505]
"But the daughter of Icarius, wise Penelope, had set her beautiful chair over against them, and heard the words of each man in the hall." [20.387]
"... come now, go down and back to the women's hall..." [23.20]
Like Queen Arete: "But when the house and the court enclose thee, pass quickly through the great hall, till thou comest to my mother ..." [6.305]
x: Rooms in the ground floor.
"As for us women, we sat terror-stricken in the innermost part of our well-built chambers, and the close-fitting doors shut us in ..." [23.41]
y: Bedroom of Odysseus and Penelope.
"A bush of long-leafed olive was growing within the court, strong and vigorous, and girth it was like a pillar. Round about this I built my chamber, till I had finished it, with close-set stones, and I roofed it over well, and added to it jointed doors, close-fitting. Thereafter I cut away the leafy branches of the long-leafed olive, and, trimming the trunk from the root, I smoothed it around with the adze well and cunningly, and made it straight to the line, thus fashioning the bed-post; and I bored it all with the augur. Beginning with this I hewed out my bed, till I had finished it, inlaying it with gold and silver and ivory, and I stretched on it a thong of ox-hide, bright with purple." [23.190-201]
z: By this door Penelope shows herself to the SUITORS.
"Now when the fair lady had come to the wooers, she stood by the door-post of the well-built hall, holding before her face her shining veil ..." [1.334]
Through it she hears what happens in the Hall: "... when wise Penelope heard of the man's being smitten in the hall, she spoke among her handmaids ..." [17.493]
F: The court behind with some trees and place for geese.
"A bush of long-leafed olive was growing within the court ..." [23.190]
"Twenty geese I have in the house that come forth from the water and eat wheat, and my heart warms with joy as I watch them." [19.535]

Related sections
Sources
Abbreviations

Apd.3.10.8; Apd.Ep.3.7, 3.11ff., 7.16, 7.24, 7.32-40; DH.1.72.5; Eur.Cyc.passim; Eur.Hec.passim; Eur.Rhe.passim; Hes.The.1011-1014, 1017ff.; Hom.Il.2.173; Hom.Od.11.387, 11.444 and passim; Hyg.Fab.95, 97, 108, 201; QS.12.25; Ov.Met.13.31; Parth.2.2, 3.1; Pau.8.12.6; Plu.GQ.48; Plu.Rom.2.1; QS.12.314ff.; Soph.Aj.passim; Soph.Phi.87 and passim; TEL.1, 2; Vir.Aen.2.61.

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